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title = "Evaluation of a game to teach requirements collection and analysis in software engineering at tertiary education level",
journal = "Computers \& Education",
volume = "56",
number = "1",
pages = "21 - 35",
year = "2011",
note = "<ce:title>Serious Games</ce:title>",
issn = "0360-1315",
doi = "10.1016/j.compedu.2010.09.008",
url = "",
author = "Thomas Hainey and Thomas M. Connolly and Mark Stansfield and Elizabeth A. Boyle",
keywords = "Games-based learning",
keywords = "Software engineering",
keywords = "Requirements collection and analysis",
keywords = "Evaluation",
keywords = "Pedagogy",
abstract = "A highly important part of software engineering education is requirements collection and analysis which is one of the initial stages of the Database Application Lifecycle and arguably the most important stage of the Software Development Lifecycle. No other conceptual work is as difficult to rectify at a later stage or as damaging to the overall system if performed incorrectly. As software engineering is a field with a reputation for producing graduates who are inappropriately prepared for applying their skills in real life software engineering scenarios, it suggests that traditional educational techniques such as role-play, live-through case studies and paper-based case studies are insufficient preparation and that other approaches are required. To attempt to combat this problem we have developed a games-based learning application to teach requirements collection and analysis at tertiary education level as games-based learning is seen as a highly motivating, engaging form of media and is a rapidly expanding field. This paper will describe the evaluation of the requirements collection and analysis game particularly from a pedagogical perspective. The game will be compared to traditional methods of software engineering education using a pre-test/post-test, control group/experimental group design to assess if the game can act as a suitable supplement to traditional techniques and assess if it can potentially overcome shortcomings. The game will be evaluated in five separate experiments at tertiary education level.",
annote={eval framework Connolly Stansfield Hainey 2009
control: traditional teaching\\
results knowledge question / learning effectiveness\\
ranked ordinal data\\
aspects and perceptions\\
non-parametric statistical tests\\
Kruskal Wallis\\
Descriptive Statistics\\
Mann-Whitney U- difference levels knowledge}
title = "Software engineering education: A study on conducting collaborative senior project development",
journal = "Journal of Systems and Software",
volume = "84",
number = "3",
pages = "479 - 491",
year = "2011",
note = "",
issn = "0164-1212",
doi = "10.1016/j.jss.2010.10.042",
url = "",
author = "Chung-Yang Chen and P. Pete Chong",
keywords = "Software engineering education",
keywords = "Senior project",
keywords = "Collaborative development",
keywords = "Meetings-flow",
abstract = "Project and teamwork training is recognized as an important aspect in software engineering (SE) education. Senior projects, which often feature industrial involvement, serve the function of a ‘capstone course’ in SE curricula, by offering comprehensive training in collaborative software development. Given the characteristics of student team projects and the social aspects of software development, instructional issues in such a course must include: how to encourage teamwork, how to formalize and streamline stakeholder participation, and how to monitor students’ work, as well as sustain their desired collaborative effort throughout the development. In this paper, we present an exploratory study which highlights a particular case and introduces the meetings-flow approach. In order to investigate how this approach could contribute to the project's results, we examined its quantitative benefits in relation to the development of the project. We also conducted focus group interviews to discuss the humanistic findings and educational effects pertaining to this approach.",
teach students how to have effective meetings for software development teams\\
``Project and teamwork training is recognized as an important aspect in software engineering (SE) education. Senior projects, which often feature industrial involvement, serve the function of a ‘capstone course’ in SE curricula, by offering comprehensive training in collaborative software development.''
students finished ahead of schedule\\
``The PIMIS student team used the MF approach and completed its project with the successful implementation and delivery of the required system. Project requirements were completed 5 weeks ahead of schedule''\\
the in-process benefits to be evaluated were taken from two perspectives: product quality effectiveness and project process efficiency.\\
statistical analysis and hypothesis testing\\
(note that the defects include both code defects and design defects in the documents):
Requirement planning and task assignment meeting (PP)\\
Internal testing and validation meeting (VAL)\\
Configuration control meeting (CM)\\
Si: development scale for cycle i;\\
Sit: accumulated development scale (including both code and documentation);\\
Di: number of total defects revealed and removed by the meeting series in cycle (i);\\
Dci: number of defects resulting from current cycle (i) is revealed and removed in cycle i;\\
SPIri: the value of the schedule performance index (SPI) for cycle i; it is observed in the REQR review meeting;\\
SPIppi, SPIvali, SPIcmi: the SPI values recorded in the PP, VAL and CM, respectively, meetings of cycle i.\\}
title = "An experimental card game for teaching software engineering processes",
journal = "Journal of Systems and Software",
volume = "75",
number = "1-2",
pages = "3 - 16",
year = "2005",
note = "<ce:title>Software Engineering Education and Training</ce:title>",
issn = "0164-1212",
doi = "10.1016/j.jss.2004.02.033",
url = "",
author = "Alex Baker and Emily Oh Navarro and André van der Hoek",
keywords = "Software engineering education",
keywords = "Educational games",
keywords = "Software engineering simulation",
keywords = "Simulation games",
abstract = "The typical software engineering course consists of lectures in which concepts and theories are conveyed, along with a small toy software engineering project which attempts to give students the opportunity to put this knowledge into practice. Although both of these components are essential, neither one provides students with adequate practical knowledge regarding the process of software engineering. Namely, lectures allow only passive learning and projects are so constrained by the time and scope requirements of the academic environment that they cannot be large enough to exhibit many of the phenomena occurring in real-world software engineering processes. To address this problem, we have developed Problems and Programmers, an educational card game that simulates the software engineering process and is designed to teach those process issues that are not sufficiently highlighted by lectures and projects. We describe how the game is designed, the mechanics of its game play, and the results of an experiment we conducted involving students playing the game.",
``teach those process issues that are not sufficiently highlighted by lectures and projects''\\
``exhibit many of the phenomena occurring in real-world softwareengineering processes''\\
``initial evaluation of the game, we designed a simple experiment in which students were taught to play the game and then asked to submit written feedback in the form of answers to structured questions. While more subjective than some other evaluation methods, we feel that this was well suited to an initial evaluation of the concept, and allowed us flexibility in the information that we gathered. In the future, we plan to utilize more formal approaches – namely, performing comparative studies in actual softwareengineering courses between the aptitudes of students who played the game and those who did not.''\\
`` they completed a questionnaire stating their thoughts and feelings about the game in general, their opinions about the pedagogical effectiveness of the game in teaching softwareengineering process issues, and their educational and professional background in softwareengineering. Some of these questions asked for a numerical answer on a one to five scale, while others allowed students to write out their responses in free form''
title = "Evaluating the learning effectiveness of using simulations in software project management education: results from a twice replicated experiment",
journal = "Information and Software Technology",
volume = "46",
number = "2",
pages = "127 - 147",
year = "2004",
note = "",
issn = "0950-5849",
doi = "10.1016/S0950-5849(03)00115-0",
url = "",
author = "Dietmar Pfahl and Oliver Laitenberger and Günther Ruhe and Jörg Dorsch and Tatyana Krivobokova",
keywords = "COCOMO",
keywords = "Learning effectiveness",
keywords = "Replicated experiment",
keywords = "Software project management education",
keywords = "System dynamics simulation",
abstract = "The increasing demand for software project managers in industry requires strategies for the development of management-related knowledge and skills of the current and future software workforce. Although several educational approaches help to develop the necessary skills in a university setting, few empirical studies are currently available to characterise and compare their effects.
This paper presents the results of a twice replicated experiment that evaluates the learning effectiveness of using a process simulation model for educating computer science students in software project management. While the experimental group applied a System Dynamics simulation model, the control group used the well-known COCOMO model as a predictive tool for project planning.
The results of each empirical study indicate that students using the simulation model gain a better understanding about typical behaviour patterns of software development projects. The combination of the results from the initial experiment and the two replications with meta-analysis techniques corroborates this finding. Additional analysis shows that the observed effect can mainly be attributed to the use of the simulation model in combination with a web-based role-play scenario. This finding is strongly supported by information gathered from the debriefing questionnaires of subjects in the experimental group. They consistently rated the simulation-based role-play scenario as a very useful approach for learning about issues in software project management.",
``Evaluating the learning effectiveness of using simulations in software project management education''\\
``For evaluating the effectiveness of a training session using SD model simulation, a pre-test–post-test control group design was applied [12]. This design involves random assignment of subjects to an experimental group (A) and a control group (B). The subjects of both groups completed a pre-test and a post-test. The pre-test measured the performance of the two groups before the treatment, and the post-test measured the performance of the two groups after the treatment. The students did neither know that the post-test questions were identical to the pre-test questions, nor were they allowed to keep the pre-test questionnaires. The correct answers were only provided to the students after the end of the experiments.''\\
``The initial experiment was conducted with graduate computer science students at the University of Kaiserslautern (KL), Germany, who were enrolled in the advanced software engineering class.''\\
``The first replication of the initial study was conducted during a summer school with 12 graduate and post-graduate students (one Master degree, one PhD) of the University of Oulu, Finland, having their major in computer science, information technology, information engineering, microelectronics or mathematics. The second replication was performed with 13 senior undergraduate students at the University of Calgary, Canada, major in computer science, electrical engineering and computer engineering.''\\
title = "Empowering teachers to create educational software: A constructivist approach utilizing Etoys, pair programming and cognitive apprenticeship",
journal = "Computers \& Education",
volume = "56",
number = "2",
pages = "527 - 538",
year = "2011",
note = "",
issn = "0360-1315",
doi = "10.1016/j.compedu.2010.09.018",
url = "",
author = "Young-Jin Lee",
keywords = "Interactive learning environment",
keywords = "Media in education",
keywords = "Programming and programming languages",
keywords = "Teaching/learning strategies",
abstract = "This study investigates whether a visual programming environment called Etoys could enable teachers to create software applications meeting their own instructional needs. Twenty-four teachers who participated in the study successfully developed their own educational computer programs in the educational technology course employing cognitive apprenticeship and pair programming approaches as the primary instructional strategies. Two educational software programs created by the participating teachers were described in order to explain what they were trying to do using Etoys and how they accomplished their goals. The results of an anonymous survey evaluating the difficulty of and the attitude toward learning Etoys indicate that teachers enjoyed learning Etoys and would like to continue to use it in the future although they found it was slightly more difficult, compared to their self-evaluated computer skill. The strengths and weaknesses of Etoys, the difficult computer programming concepts, and the educational implications of Etoys programming were also discussed.",
annote={Objective: Empowering teachers to create educational software\\
Evaluation: an anonymous survey evaluating the difficulty of and the attitude toward learning
author={Thomas M. Connolly and Mark Stansfield and Thomas Hainey},
title={Towards the Development of a Games-Based Learning Evaluation Framework},
booktitle={Games-Based Learning Advancements for Multi-Sensory Human Computer Interfaces},
publisher={Information Science Reference Ideas Group Inc, Global},
address={Hershey, PA}
title={Studying software engineers: Data collection techniques for software field studies},
author={Lethbridge, Timothy C and Sim, Susan Elliott and Singer, Janice},
journal={Empirical software engineering},
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