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%verification strategies
@article{Morse-Barrett-Mayan-Olson-Spiers-Hon-2002,
title={Verification Strategies for Establishing Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research},
volume={1},
url={http://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/IJQM/article/viewArticle/4603},
number={2},
journal={International Journal},
publisher={University of Alberta},
author={Morse, Janice M and Barrett, Michael and Mayan, Maria and Olson, Karin and Spiers, Jude and Hon, Dnurs},
editor={Smith, Lorenzo M and Pourboghrat, Farhang and Yoon, Jeong-Whan and Stoughton, Thomas BEditors}, year={2002},
pages={1--19},
annote={Noting shift away from researcher trying for reliability and validity to reader or consumer (Isay ``caveat emptor'') deciding about transferability, shift is also away from thinking about how to make the research reliable and valid by methodology, to evaluating trustworthiness and utility implemented after the conduct of the research, the authors argue that reliability and validity remain appropriate concepts.
Moreover, they argue that techniques for this should happen during, rather than after, the research. They also prefer teminology from what they call mainstream science.\\
When confidence values became readily available in quantitative social research, this was considered by qualitative social research and two responses occurred, one, these things don't apply to qualitative research, and two, some new criteria for reliability and validity are appropriate to qualitative, such as trustworthiness.
According to LincolnGuba, aspects of trustworthiness are credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability, each having methodological strategies for their achievement in some degree, such as audit trail, member checks when coding, categorizing, confirming results with participants, peer debriefing etc, (LG 1981, 1982, 1985). Later, LG developed authenticity criteria unique to constructivist assumptions, and could be used beyond methodological dimensions (LG1989). Their work is fundamental to standards of quality for qualitative. Strategies for reliability and validity took back stage to these criteria. The study urges the restoring of the strategies built in to each phase of research, not (only) evaluation afterwards.
specific strategies recommended by LG81\\
}}
@article{Morse-Barrett-Mayan-Olson-Spiers-Hon-2002,
title={Verification Strategies for Establishing Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research},
volume={1},
url={http://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/IJQM/article/viewArticle/4603},
number={2},
journal={International Journal},
publisher={University of Alberta},
author={Morse, Janice M and Barrett, Michael and Mayan, Maria and Olson, Karin and Spiers, Jude and Hon, Dnurs},
editor={Smith, Lorenzo M and Pourboghrat, Farhang and Yoon, Jeong-Whan and Stoughton, Thomas BEditors}, year={2002},
pages={1--19},
annote={negative cases\\
peer debriefing\\
prolonged engagement\\
persistent observation\\
audit trails\\
member checks\\
of the investigator\\
responsive and adaptable to changing circumstances,
holistic, having processional immediacy, sensitivity and ability for clarification and summarization\\
They challenge the assumption that study is rigorous if the evaluation, based on the existence of audit trails, member checks, memos, says so. They explain why audit trail is not convincing. They explain why memberchecking is not necessarily helpful and can be harmful. They cite Morse 1999 who says these criteria, alternative to reliability and validity, undermine the issue of rigor. Comparison of post hot with verification strategies that were used to shape and direct the research during development. Think evaluate vs. ensure.\\
Recommended strategies to ensure rigor:\\
investigator responsiveness\\
methodological coherence\\
theoretical sampling\\
sampling adequacy\\
an active analytic stance\\
saturation\\
Except for investigator responsiveness, they do not define, or give citations, for any of the above.
Verification refers to mechanisms used during research process to incrementally contribute to reliability and validity and therefore rigor.
Creswell 1997 and Kvale 1989 are cited here.
Identify and correct errors before they are built into the model, before subvert analysis.\\
Systematically check data, move back and forth between design and implementation\\
monitor and confirm constantly\\
many research decisions may underlie the sampling selection, which requires responsiveness to the needs of developing variation, verification and the developing theory\\
Investigator responsiveness\\
research is only as good as the investigator\\
creativity, sensitivity, flexibility, skill in using verification strategies that determine the reliability and validity of the evolving study.\\
E.g., form conjecture, form new question, perform purposive sampling, i.e., future participant recruitment,
want sampling strategies to ensure replication and confirmation.\\
responsiveness to whether the categorization scheme actually holds or appears thin and muddled\\
remain open, use sensitivity, creativity and insight, be willing to relinquish ideas with poor support\\
lack of responsiveness is the greatest hidden threat\\
Examples: overly adhering to instructions vs. being guided by data\\
inability to abstract, synthesize or get beyond technicalities\\
working deductively from previously held assumptions or theoretical framework\\
following instructions rote, rather than using instructions strategically in decision making\\
To do while conducting inquiry:\\
ensure methodological coherence (still undefined, see below)\\
sampling sufficiency(see below)\\
develop dynamic relationship between:\\
sampling\\
data collection\\
analysis\\
thinking theoretically\\
theory development\\
(see Meadows and Morse, 2001, for detailed explanation of these strategies)\\
Methodological coherence\\
aim is to get research question connected to components of method\\
question has to match method has to match data has to match analytic procedure\\
thngs may not go according to plan, including sampling\\
coherence is about all of these things matching throughout the process of the research\\}}
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