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location = {},
title = {How are learning objects used in learning processes? instructional roles of learning objects in lom},
author = {Heidrun Allert and Hadhami Dhraief and Wolfgang Nejdl},
year = {2002},
keywords = {Metadata, Instructional Design, E-Learning, Standard for Learning Objects Metadata LOM},
abstract = {In order to reuse and exchange learning objects we need information about these learning objects. The LOM draft standard defines a set of more than 70 attributes, which specify learning object properties like author, title, subject, and many others, including the relationship of one learning object to other learning objects. However, even though the LOM draft includes a category educational, no information is included in the standard to specify, which instructional roles are played by a learning object within a course. In this paper, we show how to include this important didactic information using the concept of instructional roles and relations in a way, which is extensible and flexible enough to specify not only general didactic criteria, but rather specific criteria, as prescribed by different instructional theories.},
url = {},
institution = {CiteSeerX - Scientific Literature Digital Library and Search Engine [] (United States)},
author = {Heidrun Allert and Hadhami Dhraief and Wolfgang Nejdl},
title = {How are learning objects used in learning processes? instructional roles of learning objects in lom},
booktitle = {In ED-MEDIA 2002, World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications},
year = {2002},
pages = {40--42}
@article {springerlink:10.1007/s11023-008-9113-7,
author = {Floridi, Luciano},
affiliation = {University of Hertfordshire Research Chair in Philosophy of Information and GPI Hertfordshire UK},
title = {The Method of Levels of Abstraction},
journal = {Minds and Machines},
publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
issn = {0924-6495},
keyword = {Computer Science},
pages = {303-329},
volume = {18},
issue = {3},
url = {},
note = {10.1007/s11023-008-9113-7},
abstract = {The use of ``levels of abstraction'' in philosophical analysis ( levelism ) has recently come under attack. In this paper, I argue that a refined version of epistemological levelism should be retained as a fundamental method, called the method of levels of abstraction . After a brief introduction, in section ``Some Definitions and Preliminary Examples'' the nature and applicability of the epistemological method of levels of abstraction is clarified. In section ``A Classic Application of the Method of Abstraction'', the philosophical fruitfulness of the new method is shown by using Kant's classic discussion of the ``antinomies of pure reason'' as an example. In section ``The Philosophy of the Method of Abstraction'', the method is further specified and supported by distinguishing it from three other forms of ``levelism'': (i) levels of organisation; (ii) levels of explanation and (iii) conceptual schemes. In that context, the problems of relativism and antirealism are also briefly addressed. The conclusion discusses some of the work that lies ahead, two potential limitations of the method and some results that have already been obtained by applying the method to some long-standing philosophical problems.},
year = {2008},
annote={ideas need some discussion’’ (Marr 1982, pp. 19–20).
In particular, in the case of an information-processing system, Marr and his
followers suggest the adoption of three levels of analysis (all the following
quotations are from Marr (1982)):
(1) the computational level. This is a description of ‘‘the abstract computational
theory of the device, in which the performance of the device is characterised as
a mapping from one kind of information structures, the abstract properties of
this mapping are defined precisely, and its appropriateness and adequacy for
the task at hand are demonstrated’’ (p. 24);
(2) the algorithmic level. This is a description of ‘‘the choice of representation for
the input and output and the algorithm to be used to transform one into the
other’’ (pp. 24–25);
(3) the implementational level. This is a description of ‘‘the details of how the
algorithm and representation are realized physically—the detailed computer
architecture, so to speak’’ (p. 25).
The three levels are supposed to be loosely connected and in a one-to-many
mapping relation: for any computational description of a particular informationprocessing problem there may be several algorithms for solving that problem, and
any algorithm may be implemented in several ways.
Along similar lines, Pylyshyn (1984) has spoken of the semantic, the syntactic,
and the physical levels of description of an information-processing system, with the
(level of) functional architecture of the system playing the role of a bridge between
Marr’s algorithmic and implementational levels.}
author={Marr, D.},
year= 1982,
title={Vision: A computational investigation into the human representation and processing of
visual information},
publisher={San Francisco: W.H. Freeman}}
% Homer QP475 .M27 1982
author={Pylyshyn, Z. W.},
title={Computation and cognition: Toward a foundation for cognitive science},
publisher={Cambridge, MA: MIT Press}} %Homer BF311 .P93 1984, QP475 .c63 1988 , QA76 .P94
author={Pylyshyn, Z. W.},
title={Things and Places: How the Mind Connects with the World},
booktitle={Jean Nicod Lectures},
publisher={Cambridge, MA: MIT Press}}
author = {Goldfarb, Liat and Treisman, Anne},
title = {Are Some Features Easier to Bind Than Others?},
volume = {21},
number = {5},
pages = {676-681},
year = {2010},
doi = {10.1177/0956797610365130},
abstract ={A common perceptual error consists of binding the features of objects in the wrong combinations. Another common finding is that incongruent thoughts or feelings tend to be rejected by the cognitive system. We combined these two notions and found that the incongruence-suppression rule constrains the binding process. We used a task in which participants were asked to bind either congruent or incongruent features together. Whether those features were digits and physical sizes (Experiment 1) or color words and colored fonts (Experiment 2), we observed a new effect that we refer to as the binding congruency effect: When participants were asked to bind incongruent features together, the error rate increased, and participants replaced the incongruent features with congruent features. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the effect depends on the migration of the relevant feature within the same level.},
URL = {},
eprint = {},
journal = {Psychological Science}
title = "A theory of abstraction",
journal = "Artificial Intelligence",
volume = "57",
number = "2–3",
pages = "323 - 389",
year = "1992",
note = "",
issn = "0004-3702",
doi = "10.1016/0004-3702(92)90021-O",
url = "",
author = "Fausto Giunchiglia and Toby Walsh",
abstract = "Informally, abstraction can be described as the process of mapping a representation of a problem onto a new representation. The aim of this paper is to propose the beginnings of a theory of reasoning with abstraction which captures and generalizes most previous work in the area. The theory allows us to study the properties of abstraction mappings and provides the foundations for the mechanization of abstraction inside an abstract proof checker."
author = {Denning, P. and Comer, D. E. and Gries, David and Mulder, Michael C. and Tucker, Allen and Turner, A. Joe and Young, Paul R.},
editor = {Denning, Peter J.},
title = {Computing as a discipline},
journal = {Commun. ACM},
issue_date = {Jan. 1989},
volume = {32},
number = {1},
month = jan,
year = {1989},
issn = {0001-0782},
pages = {9--23},
numpages = {15},
url = {},
doi = {10.1145/63238.63239},
acmid = {63239},
publisher = {ACM},
address = {New York, NY, USA},
@incollection {springerlink:10.1007/11663430_32,
author = {Engels, Gregor and Hausmann, Jan and Lohmann, Marc and Sauer, Stefan},
affiliation = {Universität Paderborn, Germany},
title = {Teaching UML Is Teaching Software Engineering Is Teaching Abstraction},
booktitle = {Satellite Events at the MoDELS 2005 Conference},
series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
editor = {Bruel, Jean-Michel},
publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
isbn = {978-3-540-31780-7},
keyword = {Computer Science},
pages = {306-319},
volume = {3844},
url = {},
note = {10.1007/11663430_32},
abstract = {As the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has by now seen widespread and successful use in the software industry and academia alike, it has also found its way into many computer science curricula. An outstanding advantage of teaching UML is that it enables an illustration of many crucial concepts of software engineering, far beyond its concrete notation. Most important among these concepts is that of abstraction. We present a course design which demonstrates the use of UML as a vehicle for teaching such core concepts of software engineering. Multimedia elements and tools help to efficiently convey the course’s message to the students.},
year = {2006}
author={Kramer, J.},
booktitle={Software Engineering Education and Training, 2003. (CSEE T 2003). Proceedings. 16th Conference on},
title={Abstraction - is it teachable? "the devil is in the detail"},
pages={ 32},
abstract={Not available},
ISSN={1093-0175 },}
author = {Koppelman, Herman and van Dijk, Betsy},
title = {Teaching abstraction in introductory courses},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the fifteenth annual conference on Innovation and technology in computer science education},
series = {ITiCSE '10},
year = {2010},
isbn = {978-1-60558-820-9},
location = {Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey},
pages = {174--178},
numpages = {5},
url = {},
doi = {10.1145/1822090.1822140},
acmid = {1822140},
publisher = {ACM},
address = {New York, NY, USA},
keywords = {abstraction, abstraction level, computer science, pedagogy, recursion},
%observing students learning abstraction
% Moström, J. E., Boustedt, J., Eckerdal, A., McCartney, R.,
%Sanders, K., Thomas, L., and Zander, C. 2008. Concrete
%examples of abstraction as manifested in students'
%transformative experiences. In Proceeding of the Fourth
%international Workshop on Computing Education Research
%(Sydney, Australia, September 06 - 07, 2008). ICER '08.
%ACM, New York, NY, 125-136. DOI=
author = {Mostr\"{o}m, Jan Erik and Boustedt, Jonas and Eckerdal, Anna and McCartney, Robert and Sanders, Kate and Thomas, Lynda and Zander, Carol},
title = {Concrete examples of abstraction as manifested in students' transformative experiences},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the Fourth international Workshop on Computing Education Research},
series = {ICER '08},
year = {2008},
isbn = {978-1-60558-216-0},
location = {Sydney, Australia},
pages = {125--136},
numpages = {12},
url = {},
doi = {10.1145/1404520.1404533},
acmid = {1404533},
publisher = {ACM},
address = {New York, NY, USA},
keywords = {abstraction, learning theory, threshold concepts, transformation},
%T. Colburn and G. Shute. Abstraction in computer
%science. Minds and Machines, 17(2):169–184, 2007.
%9] F. Detienne. Assessing the cognitive consequences of
%the object-oriented approach: A survey of empirical
%research on object-oriented design by individuals and
%teams. Interacting with Computers, 9:47–72, 1997.
%[15] J. Mead, S. Gray, J. Hamer, R. James, J. Sorva, C. S.
%Clair, and L. Thomas. A cognitive approach to
%identifying measurable milestones for programming
%skill acquisition. SIGCSE Bulletin, 38(4):182–194,
%[16] B. Meyer. Testable, reusable units of cognition.
%Computer, 39(4):20–24, 2006.
%[18] J. H. Meyer and R. Land. Threshold concepts and
%troublesome knowledge (2): Epistemological
%considerations and a conceptual framework for
%teaching and learning. Higher Education, 49:373–388,
%0] R. Or-Bach and I. Lavy. Cognitive activities of
%abstraction in object orientation: an empirical study.
%SIGCSE Bull., 36(2):82–86, 2004
%24] K. Sanders, J. Boustedt, A. Eckerdal, R. McCartney,
%J. E. Moström, L. Thomas, and C. Zander. Student
%understanding of object-oriented programming as
%expressed in concept maps. In SIGCSE ’08:
%Proceedings of the 39th SIGCSE technical symposium
%on Computer science education, pages 332–336, New
%York, NY, USA, 2008. ACM.
author = {Lone Leth Thomsen and Bent Thomsen and Kurt N\/{o}rmark},
title = {Computational Abstraction Steps},
journal = {Journal of Object Technology},
volume = {9},
number = {6},
issn = {1660-1769},
year = {2010},
month = nov,
pages = {1-23},
doi = {10.5381/jot.2010.9.6.a1},
url = {}
author={Haberman, B. and Muller, O.},
booktitle={Frontiers in Education Conference, 2008. FIE 2008. 38th Annual},
title={Teaching abstraction to novices: Pattern-based and ADT-based problem-solving processes},
pages={F1C-7 -F1C-12},
abstract={Abstraction is taught to computer-science students as part of a comprehensive curriculum. The students encounter the concept of abstraction in various contexts while learning the different modules, each of which emphasizes some specific aspects of the concept. In this paper we present two instructional approaches, both related to utilizing abstraction in problem-solving processes: (1) pattern-oriented instruction (POI), and (2) abstract data type (ADT)-oriented instruction. We present these methods with respect to their employment in teaching problem solving to novices, and elaborate on abstraction processes.},
keywords={abstract data type-oriented instruction;abstraction processes;computer-science students;pattern-oriented instruction;problem-solving processes;teaching problem;abstract data types;computer aided instruction;computer science education;teaching;},
author = {Hazzan, Orit},
title = {Reflections on teaching abstraction and other soft ideas},
journal = {SIGCSE Bull.},
issue_date = {June 2008},
volume = {40},
number = {2},
month = jun,
year = {2008},
issn = {0097-8418},
pages = {40--43},
numpages = {4},
url = {},
doi = {10.1145/1383602.1383631},
acmid = {1383631},
publisher = {ACM},
address = {New York, NY, USA},
keywords = {abstraction, computer science education, reflection, soft ideas},
author = {Kramer, Jeff},
title = {Is abstraction the key to computing?},
journal = {Commun. ACM},
issue_date = {April 2007},
volume = {50},
number = {4},
month = apr,
year = {2007},
issn = {0001-0782},
pages = {36--42},
numpages = {7},
url = {},
doi = {10.1145/1232743.1232745},
acmid = {1232745},
publisher = {ACM},
address = {New York, NY, USA},
@incollection {springerlink:10.1007/978-0-85729-443-2\_3,
author = {Hazzan, Orit and Lapidot, Tami and Ragonis, Noa and Hazzan, Orit and Lapidot, Tami and Ragonis, Noa},
affiliation = {Dept. Education in Technology & Science, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa, Israel},
title = {Overview of the Discipline of Computer Science},
booktitle = {Guide to Teaching Computer Science},
publisher = {Springer London},
isbn = {978-0-85729-443-2},
keyword = {Computer Science},
pages = {21-46},
url = {},
note = {10.1007/978-0-85729-443-2_3},
abstract = {This chapter proposes how to address in the MTCS course topics associated with the nature of the discipline of computer science and with cross-curriculum topics. The importance of these topics is explained by the fact that even today no consensus has been reached with respect to one agreed-upon definition for computer science, and different scholars view it differently. Specifically, the following topics are discussed in this chapter: what is computer science, the history of computer science, computer scientists, social issues of computer science, programming paradigms, and computer science soft ideas. For each topic, its meaning and its importance and relevance in the context of computer science education are explained, and then, several activities which deal with the said topic are presented.},
year = {2011}
%Logic and Abstraction as Capabilities of the Mind: Reconceptualizations of Computational Approaches to the Mind
%David J. Saab (Penn State University, USA) and Uwe V. Riss (SAP AG, CEC Karlsruhe, Germany)
%Copyright © 2010. 17 pages.
booktitle = {14th Australasian Computing Education Conference (ACE 2012)},
editor = {Michael de Raadt and Angela Carbone},
month = {January},
title = {Some empirical results for neo-Piagetian reasoning in novice programmers and the relationship to code explanation questions},
author = {Malcolm W. Corney and Donna M. Teague and Alireza Ahadi and Raymond Lister},
address = {RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC},
publisher = {Australian Computer Society Inc},
year = {2012},
keywords = {novice programmer, CS1, neo-Piagetian},
url = {},
abstract = {Recent research on novice programmers has suggested that they pass through neo-Piagetian stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, and concrete operational stages, before eventually reaching programming competence at the formal operational stage. This paper presents empirical results in support of this neo-Piagetian perspective. The major novel contributions of this paper are empirical results for some exam questions aimed at testing novices for the concrete operational abilities to reason with quantities that are conserved, processes that are reversible, and properties that hold under transitive inference. While the questions we used had been proposed earlier by Lister, he did not present any data for how students performed on these questions. Our empirical results demonstrate that many students struggle to answer these problems, despite the apparent simplicity of these problems. We then compare student performance on these questions with their performance on six explain in plain English questions.}
author={Lister, R.},
title={Concrete and Other Neo-Piagetian Forms of Reasoning in the Novice Programmer},
booktitle={Thirteenth Australasian Computing Education
Conference (ACE 2011)},
publisher = {Australian Computer Society Inc},
pages={pp. 9–18},
%%OSS Pedroni SIGCSE2007
%Meneelly ITiCSE 2008
%Costa-Soria EAEEIE 2009
author = {Costa-Soria, Crist\'{o}bal and P{\'e}rez, Jennifer},
title = {Teaching software architectures and aspect-oriented software development using open-source projects},
journal = {SIGCSE Bull.},
issue_date = {September 2009},
volume = {41},
number = {3},
month = jul,
year = {2009},
issn = {0097-8418},
pages = {385--385},
numpages = {1},
url = {},
doi = {10.1145/1595496.1563027},
acmid = {1563027},
publisher = {ACM},
address = {New York, NY, USA},
keywords = {AOSD, reverse engineering, software architecture},
annote={very nice, students learn from large open source, only 1 page, only OSS reference is Pedroni}
author = {Costa-Soria, Crist\'{o}bal and P{\'e}rez, Jennifer},
title = {Teaching software architectures and aspect-oriented software development using open-source projects},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM SIGCSE conference on Innovation and technology in computer science education},
series = {ITiCSE '09},
year = {2009},
isbn = {978-1-60558-381-5},
location = {Paris, France},
pages = {385--385},
numpages = {1},
url = {},
doi = {10.1145/1562877.1563027},
acmid = {1563027},
publisher = {ACM},
address = {New York, NY, USA},
keywords = {AOSD, reverse engineering, software architecture},
author={Nandigam, J. and Gudivada, V.N. and Hamou-Lhadj, A.},
booktitle={Frontiers in Education Conference, 2008. FIE 2008. 38th Annual},
title={Learning software engineering principles using open source software},
pages={S3H-18 -S3H-23},
abstract={Traditional lectures espousing software engineering principles hardly engage students attention due to the fact that students often view software engineering principles as mere academic concepts without a clear understanding of how they can be used in practice. Some of the issues that contribute to this perception include lack of experience in writing and understanding large programs, and lack of opportunities for inspecting and maintaining code written by others. To address these issues, we have worked on a project whose overarching goal is to teach students a subset of basic software engineering principles using source code exploration as the primary mechanism. We attempted to espouse the following software engineering principles and concepts: role of coding conventions and coding style, programming by intention to develop readable and maintainable code, assessing code quality using software metrics, refactoring, and reverse engineering to recover design elements. Student teams have examined the following open source Java code bases: ImageJ, Apache Derby, Apache Lucene, Hibernate, and JUnit. We have used Eclipse IDE and relevant plug-ins in this project.},
keywords={open source software;software engineering education;source code exploration;students;computer science education;},
annote={they have good references about metrics, they have a list of useful eclipse plugins,
they used Omondo and they generated sequence diagrams}}
%Raj, R, K, and Kazemian, F, "Using Open Source Software in Computer Science Courses," 36
author={Raj, R.K. and Kazemian, F.},
booktitle={Frontiers in Education Conference, 36th Annual},
title={Using Open Source Software in Computer Science Courses},
pages={21 -26},
abstract={Open source software (OSS) has become mainstream in recent years, making a wide variety of software tools available to instructors and students. In particular, a large collection of OSS source code is now available for use in college courses in disciplines that involve software development. Concomitantly, computer science (CS) educators have been exploring different ways to reinvigorate the CS curriculum to make it more attractive, amenable, and applicable to college students. We regard appropriate OSS use to represent a major prong of a multi-pronged approach to a revamped CS curriculum. Due to our use of OSS in advanced CS courses, our students have gained useful insights into software design and development. They have also felt empowered as they worked on real-world team projects that do not necessarily end with the academic term. This paper uses a database system implementation course to illustrate our approach to OSS and provides an initial assessment},
keywords={computer science courses;database system implementation course;open source software;software design;software development;software tools;computer aided instruction;computer science education;public domain software;software engineering;},
annote={OSS database engine, Scheme, and compilers, students stated their marketability had been increased, Some students suggested the use of an industrial strength
OSS database system Wheeler [33] also provides a general 4-step process
for evaluating OSS programs: (a) identifying OSS candidates,
(b) reading reviews, (c) compare leading programs, and (d)
analyzing the top candidates in greater depth.
%Pedroni, M, Bay, T, Oriol, M, and Pedroni, A, "Open Source Projects in Programming Courses," SIGCSE, March 2007.
author = {Pedroni, Michela and Bay, Till and Oriol, Manuel and Pedroni, Andreas},
title = {Open source projects in programming courses},
journal = {SIGCSE Bull.},
issue_date = {March 2007},
volume = {39},
number = {1},
month = mar,
year = {2007},
issn = {0097-8418},
pages = {454--458},
numpages = {5},
url = {},
doi = {10.1145/1227504.1227465},
acmid = {1227465},
publisher = {ACM},
address = {New York, NY, USA},
keywords = {assessment, communities, motivation, open source, project},
%Nelson, D, and Ng, Y, M, "Teaching Computer Networking using Open Source Software," ITiCSE, 2000, pp. 13-16.
%O'Hara, K, J, and Kay, J, S, "Open Source Software and Computer Science Education," The Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges, Vol. 18, No. 3, February 2003.
%Jaccheri, L, and Osterlie, T, "Open Source Software: A Source of Possibilities for Software Engineering Education and Empirical Software Engineering," First International Workshop on Emerging Trends in FLOSS Research and Development (FLOSS'07), 2007.
%[24] Claypool, M., D. Finkel, and C.E. Wills “An Open Source Laboratory
%for Operating Systems Projects”, ACM/SIGCSE ITiCSE (Innovation and
%Technology in Computer Science Education), June 2001, pp. 145-148.
%[25] German, D.M., “Experiences teaching a graduate course in Open Source
%Software Engineering”, First International Conference on Open Source
%Systems (OSS2005), Genova, Italy, July 2005.
%[30] Bezroukov, N., “Open Source Software Development as a Special Type
%of Academic Research (Critique of Vulgar Raymondism)”, First
%Monday, 4(10), Oct. 1999. Accessed May 27, 2006.
%] Wheeler, D.A., “How to Evaluate Open Source Software/Free Software
%(OSS/FS) Programs”, 2006. Accessed May 27, 2006.
%Here's a Java for project, OptFlux
%Rocha et al. BMC Systems Biology 2010, 4:45
%P. Roberts. Abstract thinking: a predictor of modelling ability? In Educators’ Symposium Models 2009.
author={Bell, T. and Pasternak, A. and Stephenson, C. and Tucker, A. and Vahrenhold, J.},
booktitle={Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), 2010 IEEE},
title={Panel 2014; Implementing CS curricula in secondary education: An international perspective},
pages={T2B-1 -T2B-3},
abstract={Despite several well-received designs for Computer Science curricula in secondary education being published both on national and international level, the implementation of these curricula is still being impeded by a variety of factors. This panel is intended to present issues, and approaches to solving them, from an international perspective. The presenters bring together experience in curriculum design, implementation, and teacher training and certification, and have had some successes that will help to inform those who are struggling with barriers to successful implementation and sustained improvement to Computer Science education. Given the current efforts to standardize courses in secondary education both in North America and Europe, it is expected that the results of the discussion following the presentations will help inform and influence these implementation efforts.},
keywords={Europe;North America;computer science education;course standardization;curriculum design;curriculum implementation;secondary education;teacher certification;teacher training;certification;computer science education;educational courses;teacher training;},
% E. Allen, R. Cartwright, and C. Reis. Production
%programming in the classroom. In SIGCSE ’03:
%Proceedings of the 34th SIGCSE technical symposium
%on Computer science education, pages 89–93, New
%York, NY, USA, 2003. ACM Press.
%[2] D. Carrington and S.-K. Kim. Teaching software design
%with open source software. Frontiers in Education,
%3(33):S1C– 9–14, November 2003.
%[3] C. P. Fuhrman. Appreciation of software design
%concerns via open-source tools and projects. In 10th
%Workshop on Pedagogies and Tools for the Teaching
%and Learning of Object Oriented Concepts, at 20th
%European Conference on Object Oriented Programming
%(ECOOP), Nantes, FR, July 2006.
%[4] K. J. O’Hara and J. S. Kay. Open source software and
%computer science education. J. Comput. Small Coll.,
%18(3):1–7, 2003.
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