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title={Verification Strategies for Establishing Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research}, volume={1}, url={}, number={2}, journal={International Journal}, publisher={University of Alberta}, author={Morse, Janice M and Barrett, Michael and Mayan, Maria and Olson, Karin and Spiers, Jude and Hon, Dnurs}, editor={Smith, Lorenzo M and Pourboghrat, Farhang and Yoon, Jeong-Whan and Stoughton, Thomas BEditors}, year={2002}, pages={1--19},
annote={Appropriate sample
participants who best represent or have knowledge of topic, resulting in\\
efficient and effective saturation of categories\\
detect sampling adequacy by saturation and replication (Morse 1991).
Sampling adequacy means sufficient data are present to account for all aspects of the phenomenon.\\
Seeking negative cases is essential, becuase aspects that are initially less than obvious will be indicated.\\
Saturating data, by definition, ensures replication in categories. \\
The replication verifies (ok) and ensures comprehension (not so sure) and completeness.\\
Collecting and analyzing data concurrently is essential for reliability and validity. (so they say, and in exploring a search tree where not allowed to retrace your steps, would be important, but we are not in that situation)
Thinking theoretically:\\
ideas emerging from data are reconfirmed in new data (Isay or maybe they are not)\\
produces new ideas, must be (back) verified in the data already collected\\
requires macro-micro perspectives, samll steps, no cognitive leaps, constantly checking and rechecking\\
Theory development\\
more with deliberation between a micro perspective of the data and a macro conceptual/theoretical understanding\\
Theory is developed throughtwo mechanisma\\
outcome of research (not adopted as a framework)\\
template for comparison and further development of the theory\\
valid theories are well-developed and informed, comprehensive, logical, parsimonious, and consistent\\
Glaser 1978 and Morse 1997 are references.
Attending to rigor throughout the research process will have important ramifications for qualitative inquiry,
verification and attention to rigor will be evident in the quality of the text. Excellent inquiry is stunning: the arguments are sophisticated in that they are complex yet elegant, focused yet profound, surprising yet obvious.}}
author = {Birks, Melanie and Chapman, Ysanne and Francis, Karen},
title = {Memoing in qualitative research},
volume = {13},
number = {1},
pages = {68-75},
year = {2008},
doi = {10.1177/1744987107081254},
abstract ={This paper explores memoing in the context of qualitative research methodologies. The functions of memos in the research process are discussed and a number of techniques for employing memo writing to enhance the research experience and outcomes are examined. Memoing is often discussed in the literature as a technique employed in grounded theory research, yet there is limited exploration of the value of memo writing in qualitative methodologies generally. Memoing serves to assist the researcher in making conceptual leaps from raw data to those abstractions that explain research phenomena in the context in which it is examined. Memos can be effectively employed by both the novice and experienced researcher as a procedural and analytical strategy throughout the research process. Data exploration is enhanced, continuity of conception and contemplation is enabled and communication is facilitated through the use of memoing. While guidelines exist to aid in the production and use of memos, memoing remains a flexible strategy wherein the process of construction and nature of content is determined by the preferences and abilities of the researcher and the aims and focus of the specific research study.},
URL = {},
eprint = {},
journal = {Journal of Research in Nursing} ,
annote={techniques for employing memo writing\\
helps the leap from raw data to abstraction\\
often employed in grounded theory, also useful in basic inductive\\
qual: contextually situated meaning\\
title={Sameness and difference in transfer},
author={Marton, Ference},
journal={The Journal of the Learning Sciences},
publisher={Taylor \& Francis}
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