Lab 0 - Statistics and the Student t-test
We use statistics to draw conclusions from limited data. No measurement is exact. Every measurement you make has two types of uncertainties, systematic and random. Systematic uncertainties come from faults in your assumptions or equipment. Random uncertainties are associated with unpredictable (or unforeseen at the time) experimental conditions. These can also be due to simplifications of your model. Here are some examples for caliper measurements:
In theory, all uncertainies could be accounted for by factoring in all physics in your readings. In reality, there is a diminishing return on investment for this practice. So we use some statistical insights to draw conclusions.